Most of us have seen splotchy lichens clinging to rocks, trees and maybe even the ground, but did you know that you can date landslides with lichens? Several varieties of foliose lichen are present, some of which may be parasitic. A green lichen clinging to rocks in the high Sierras. This technique has been used to date historic earthquakes that may have caused landslides. Lichens Many Other Uses While lichens are a relatively new tool in geologic applications, there have been numerous uses of lichens by humans for centuries. Ethnolichenology is the study of how humans have used lichens in making dyes, in medicine and even as a food. A foliose lichen on a rocky outcrop. The use of lichens in traditional medicine is extensive in many cultures.
Hunting for Landslides from Cascadia’s Great Earthquakes
Since the Boxing Day earthquake in tsunamis have been big news. The images from the Indian Ocean of unstoppable waves crashing against vulnerable coastlines seared our minds and confirmed the ever-present danger from this natural hazard. Yet earthquakes are not the only source of tsunamis.
Klickitat Lake in the Oregon Coast Range has many still-standing Douglas Fir trees that were drowned after a landslide formed the lake. The age of the lake-forming landslide can be ascertained when dendrochronological techniques are applied to wedges extracted from these trees.
English Large landslides, including rockslides, rock and debris avalanches, debris flows, and sackung or slope sags , result from a complex of controlling features and processes Hutchinson, Geological history Ballantyne, , lithology and structure [Zischinsky, ], [Zischinsky, ], [Benko and Stead, ], [Agliardi et al. Some of the above factors also control the geometry of the failure surface and its development both in space and time.
A variety of data, models, and theories have been presented to explain the locations of large slope failures Carrara, , their geometry, time of occurrence, triggering mechanisms, rates and types of movement [Shreve, ], [Melosh, ], [Legros, ], [Iverson, ] and [McSaveney and Davies, ] , and their effects, including, for example, landslide damming, increased erosion, and impacts on structure.
The associated risk can be high, both to communities and to critical infrastructure in hinterlands Evans et al. The risk can extend far from the source slopes, for example due to landslide damming of rivers Schuster, and generation of large water waves in lakes and reservoirs e.
Age of the earth
Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email On the surface it’s just a wooded walk along a secluded stretch of Upper Swansea Valley hillside but look more closely and the signs are there. How many footpaths are this broad and have pavements on either side? Look more closely and you will see steps leading up through a gap in the stone walls, disappearing into a sea of bramble-choked undergrowth, a stretch of rusting wrought iron railings and a stranded gatepost with no gate to cradle.
Now and then, crumbling, ivy-clad retaining walls peek out at you and the odd fragment of a building leaves you in no doubt – people once lived here.
It is often necessary to date the landslides not only to trace the causes of the failure of a slope but essentially to define the environmental factors interacting in .
Click to playTap to play The video will start in 8Cancel Play now Get daily updates directly to your inbox Subscribe Thank you for subscribingSee our privacy notice Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Storm Callum wreaked more havoc with North Wales enduring another day of strong winds and torrential downpours. The heavy rain, which saw the Met Office issue a yellow weather warning helped fill the region’s already swollen rivers causing 14 flood alerts across the region.
The rain, coupled with gale forced gusts saw a catamaran overturned in the Menai Strait and landslides in Bethesda and Bala. It follows the 86mph winds yesterday, which caused landslides, trees falling over and even trampolines being blown onto cars. A number of ferries and trains were also cancelled and a several roads closed, some for almost 24 hours later. Gwydir Castle gardens have been flooded during Storm Callum Image: Gwydir Castle The alert means that flooding is ‘possible’ but not necessarily ‘expected’ but warns people to be prepared.
One of the places affected by flooding was Gwydir Castle for the second time in as many months. Flood alerts, landslides and road closures as Storm Callum continues to batter North Wales Despite the rain taking centre stage, there has again been some problems with the wind. The Ffestiniog and Welsh Highland Railway had to “severely curtail” their train services, after nine trees fell onto the rail line. Nine trees block the line at this point With obstructions like this – and the continuing bad weather – we obviously had no other option but to severely curtail our train services today.
Unprecedented rainfall causes floods and landslides in Kyushu, southern Japan
If society collapses the power to talk, communicate, and negotiate will constitute utmost benefits. No man is an island calls for on new meaning. Irrespective of how far into the woods anyone decide to others uncover you. Those who are doing well others should take time to steal from you, if you arent doing well others will prey upon you. Your best defense will be build strong connections web-sites and share the succeed. That is how we got into this society to start with and societies will dominate as long as man survives.
Radiocarbon dating is the most widely used tool for dating landslides, but like dendrochronology, it has a temporal limitation. Because the half-life of 14 C is about years, the technique provides reliable ages only back to about 40, radiocarbon years (Figure ).
Sunday 22 October The quake struck near the town of Kaikoura on Sunday, at a depth of 13km, causing strong shaking. No casualties were reported after the earthquake struck. Residents and tourists were shaken but unhurt by the quake, which was followed by number of lighter aftershocks. He told the New Zealand Herald: It was short and sharp. It was very, very sharp, quick and then it was over.
Thousands of Russian Orthodox Church followers will plunge into icy rivers and ponds across the country to mark Epiphany, cleansing themselves with water deemed holy for the day. Anees Ansari, Zainab’s father, accused the police of being slow to respond when his daughter went missing in the eastern Punjab province. Two people were killed and three others were wounded in clashes between angry Kasur residents and police after protesters enraged over her death attacked a police station in the city.
North and South Korea began their first official talks in more than two years, focusing on the forthcoming Winter Olympics after months of tensions over Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons programme. Thirty-seven people died overnight when torrential rain and mudslides swept though shanty homes. Reuters People take part in pro-government rallies, Iran.
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However, notwithstanding the evidence, alternative slump source mechanisms, as well as those attributed to a thrust fault, are still considered by some investigators as a likely alternative. In this context we present evidence on the dating of the slump by observational, acoustic and biological methods that supports the slump source of the tsunami. The observational data from Remote and Manned Submersibles shows that seabed features, such as fissures and fractured limestone, on the surface of the slump, to be more recently deformed than outside the slump area.
Fluid expulsion from the seabed was only observed from the area of the slump mass.
Precise age dating of youthful landslides can help determine the landslide hazard posed by Cascadia megathrust earthquakes. Lidar base data are courtesy of DOGAMI.
Geological Survey reveals a shifting landscape beneath the forest. Three researchers with USGS mapped a history of different landslides across 64 percent of an square-mile area between Prindle and Carson in Skamania County. The landslides have occurred over a broad timeline. About a fifth of the slides the researchers observed are more than 1, years old. Around a dozen occurred in the last two decades or are currently moving.
When warranted, we go in and fix or move the structures. Those same features, and the thick forest that covers them, also make it difficult for scientists to accurately map old and currently active landslides using traditional methods. In those details he saw offsets, cracks, ridges, bulges and toes — all evidence of landslides beneath the forest.
The landslides were then mapped by combining the lidar images with inSAR, an imaging technique that detects subtle ground movements with satellites, GPS, tree-ring dating, historical field records and other tools.
New Zealand hit by ‘big’ 5.4 magnitude earthquake, causing landslides
I strive to employ a multi-disciplinary field-based, lab-supported, collaborative approach to explore far-reaching, broader picture research that is widely beneficial and societally relevant. My research is currently focused on the New Zealand and California plate boundaries. These data complement paleoseismic data and provide a key input for numerical simulations of earthquake behavior on this ideal natural fault.
Dating Landslides with Lichen February 1, February 19, Mike K. 0 Comment dating earthquakes, geology, landslide dating, lichen, lichenometry, myscienceblast, science Most of us have seen splotchy lichens clinging to rocks, trees and maybe even the ground, but did you know that you can date landslides with lichens?
Earthquake Mitigation Measures Minimizing or avoiding the risks from earthquakes involves three subject areas. First is the ability to predict their occurrence. While scientists cannot routinely predict earthquakes, this area is of growing interest and may be a key factor in reducing risks in the future. This information is used to address the third area of earthquake risk reduction-mitigation measures. Following a discussion of prediction, assessment, and mitigation, the types and sources of earthquake information are presented.
Earthquake Prediction A report on an erroneous prediction of an earthquake in Lima, Peru, states: Earthquake prediction is still in a research and experimental phase.
Floods and landslides in Indonesia leave 22 dead
First auction year the shortage was pumpkins. It appears that last years crop which was intended to end up being this years canned merchandise. Due to the damaging weather experienced last year there would be a shortage enjoying a of the canned pumpkin. Survival Skills Landslides Choosing and storing foods for disaster survival is a must because for the possibility getting stranded with no way to get needed supplies for days on result.
The Dating of Landslides Introduction It is often necessary to date the landslides not only to trace the causes of the failure of a slope but essentially to deﬁne the environmental factors interacting in the process of changing the natural environment.
One of the slides Pierson and his study co-authors Joseph Bard and Russel Evarts identified is just a little upriver of Bonneville Dam. When warranted, we go in and fix or move the structures. Those same features, and the thick forest that covers them, also make it difficult for scientists to accurately map old and currently active landslides using traditional methods. In those details he saw offsets, cracks, ridges, bulges and toes — all evidence of landslides beneath the forest. The landslides were then mapped by combining the lidar images with inSAR, an imaging technique that detects subtle ground movements with satellites, GPS, tree-ring dating, historical field records and other tools.
Most of the landslides show evidence of more than one movement, which, the news release says, shows that old landslides can reactivate. Pierson said the area they studied is prone to landslides because the underlying bedrock tilts to the south between 2 and 10 degrees. On top of that are layers of clay-rich sands, gravel and volcanic flows of different ages and consistencies — all of which are stressed by water. Due to a lack of funding, Pierson and his colleagues conducted the study in their spare time.
He recommended that people in landslide-prone areas consult engineers and geologists before building. He also urged caution when excavating around slopes and to be sure water drains away from a property.